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PHENOL

179

Reaction.  i. Grind up in a mortar I c.c. of sulphonic chloride
with 5 grams powdered ammonium carbonate, and leave on the
water-bath until the smell of the sulphonic chloride has gone.
Add water, filter, and wash, and crystallise the residue of
benzene sulphonamide from spirit, CCH5SO.>C1 + 2NH4HCO3 =

2.  Add I c.c. of the sulphonic chloride to 2 c.c. aniline, stir
up well, add water, and acidify with a few drops of concentrated
HC1  (methyl violet  paper).    Filter,  wash, and crystallise  the
benzenesulphonanilide   from   spirit,   CGH3SOoClH-NH.,C0Hr =
CGH5S02NHCCH5+HC1.
3.  Add 2 c.c. absolute alcohol to i c.c. sulphonic chloride and
excess  of caustic  soda until  alkaline ; warm  gently for five
minutes and add more caustic soda if necessary.    Cool, and
extract with ether.    The residualliquid consists of benzene ethyl
sulphonate, C0H5SO2Cl-fHOC2H5=C6H5SOoOC2H5-l-HCL
4.   Repeat 3, using phenol in place of alcohol.    See Appendix^
P- 293-
PREPARATION 76.
Phenol (Carbolic acid, Hydroxybenzene), CGH5.OH
Kekule, Wurtz, Dusart, Zcitschr. f. Ch. N.  F.,   1867,   3,
299-301 ; Degener, J.prakt. Chim. 1878, (2), 17, 394.
20 grins, potassium benzenesulphonate.
35          caustic potash.
The caustic potash is dissolved in the smallest quantity of
water (5 c.c.) by heating in a silver or nickel basin or crucible,
and the powdered potassium benzenesulphonate added. The
temperature of the melt, which during the process is kept con-
stantly stirred, must not exceed 250. It is convenient to use
the thermometer as stirrer, the bulb and part of the stem being-
encased in a glass tube closed at one end. When the requisite
temperature has been reached, a small flame is sufficient to
maintain it. The mass is first thick and:. pasty, but soon be-
comes semi-fluid and remains in this condition, gradually
changing in colour from yellow to brown. Towards the end of
the operation (one hour) it regains somewhat its original con-
sistency. On cooling, the melt is dissolved in a little water
N  2